between one sentence and another that follows
between clauses within sentences.
- All of us make excuses; however, not all of our excuses are good ones.
- Because taking responsibilities for our mistakes can be painful, all of us tend to make excuses to justify our poor choices.
- The dentist and the dental assistant are thinking about the procedure they are performing. Meanwhile, the patient is daydreaming about her upcoming vacation.
- As the dentist and the hygienist work, the patient is mentally planning the rest of his day.
Adverbs can serve the same function in between whole paragraphs as well.
When we act in such a way that hurts someone else, many of us make excuses to justify our poor behavior. We might insist we were tired or having a bad day. We might say the person we hurt deserved it in some way. We might argue that someone else manipulated or forced us to do something that we wouldn’t have done otherwise.
However, the truth of the matter is that we let someone down. We didn’t live up to the high standards to which we should hold ourselves. Rather than make excuses, we should apologize and use the situation as moment for self reflection.
Everyone knows the discomfort of being trapped in a dentist’s chair. Our mouths are full of tubes and clamps. Strangers have gloved fingers shoved between our jaws. The dentist and the hygienist are speaking to one another in code about buccals and occlusals, wear and pitting.
Meanwhile, we are a million miles away. Mentally, we are on vacation. Our thoughts wander to events from earlier in the day or still to come.
Adverbs can show
- Cause and Effect (because, since, as)
- Contrast (although, though, even though, on the other hand)
- Chronology (after, before, as, while, when, as soon as, then)
- Condition (if, unless, otherwise)
- Manner (as, as though, as if)
- and more.
Some adverbs are subordinating adverbs —
For example, “although” makes a dependent (or subordinate) clause.
Other adverbs join two independent clauses.
For example, “Otherwise” is NOT a subordinator. It connects two independent clauses.
The punctuation rules differ for subordinating and coordinating adverbs.
- Even though she was an introvert, she spoke confidently during her presentation.
- She was an introvert; however, she spoke confidently during her presentation.